In 1982, the International Council on Monuments and Sites declared April 18 as World Heritage Day. Its purpose was to create awareness among people about ancient heritage and sites. There are 845 cultural sites on the list. Includes 209 natural, 23 mixed sites. Based on the number of destinations, Italy is first, China is second and Spain in third. It is followed by France and Germany. A total of 53 heritage sites in Italy are included in this list. The list includes 52 from China, 46 from Spain, 43 from France and 42 from Germany.
Talking about India, the historical heritage of the world includes ancient and historically important places from the Taj Mahal of India to the caves of Ajanta and from the Red Fort to the Konark Temple. In 2018, The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site List. After the latest edition of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India, 37 places have now been listed as World Heritage Sites. India is included in the list of top countries in the world in terms of many heritage sites in the world. UNESCO identifies World Heritage Sites as places that are located in all regions of the world and which belong to all the people of the world. These World Heritage Sites of India are rated of immense cultural and natural importance in the world and the places are appreciated worldwide.
10 Famous cultural world heritage sites in the world
- Machu-Pichhu is also called the lost city of INSAS. It is in Peru.
- Egyptian Pyramids
- China Wall
- Bagan City of Myanmar
- Agra’s Taj Mahal
- Mont Saint Michel of France, it is an island.
- Angkor Wat Temple of Cambodia. Earlier it was Hindu temples which later became Buddhist.
- Acropolis of Athens city in Greece
- The Rapa Nui National Park of Easter Island is different from the monolithic sculptures here.
- Chichen Itza, Mexico, is called the city inhabited by the Maya people.
Famous cultural world heritage sites in India
It is located on the south bank of the Yamuna River in the city of Agra in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Taj Mahal was included in the list of World Heritage Sites of India by UNESCO in the year 1983.
Group Of Monuments At Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu
The temple town Mahabalipuram is located on the banks of the Bay of Bengal, 55 km from Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu. It is also called the Rath Temple of Mahabalipuram. It was built by Narasimha Burman I. Initially this city was called Mamallapuram. This ancient city of Tamil Nadu is very famous for its magnificent temples, architecture, and sea-shores.
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Ellora Cave is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra, India. Ellora Caves is located about 29 kilometers north-west of Aurangabad and about 300 kilometers from Mumbai. This cave is one of the largest rock-cut monastery cave complexes in the world. In which the features and artwork of monuments related to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism are seen.
Konark Sun Temple
The Sun Temple of Konark is located in the town of Konark in Puri district of the Indian state of Orissa. Even after 750 years of its construction, Surya Mandir makes everyone speechless with its uniqueness, grandeur and artistic grandeur.
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park is a national park located within two districts of the state of Assam. These include one district, Kaliabor subdivision of Naugaon district in Assam state and another Bokaghat subdivision of Golaghat district. Kaziranga Gardens, covering 378 km2 (146 sq mi). It is a global heritage site. Two-thirds of the world’s population of one-horned rhinos live in this park.
Manas National Park
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is located under the Bhutan-Himalayan hills in the state of Assam. It is famous for its unique biodiversity and landscape. Manas was the first reserve to be included in the network of tiger reserves in 1973 under Project Tiger. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was marked as a World Heritage Site in 1985. Manas was granted the status of a Biosphere Reserve in 1989. It is spread over an area of 2837 sq km which extends from the Dhansiri River in the east to the Sankosh River in the west.
Hampi is a beautiful and historic village located in the Bellary district of Karnataka, which attracts tourists from not only the country but the world. The remains of several temple groups of the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the most prosperous empires present in the pages of history, are still found in Hampi. It is a matter of pride for Hampi that many temples and monuments here have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Located on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra river, Hampi is historically quite prosperous along with being beautiful. Hampi is also famous worldwide for the 7th century Hindu Virupaksha Temple, Vittala Temple, and a stone chariot.
Khajuraho Temple is famous all over the world. The nature of the temple is not because the Gods and Goddesses here are very miraculous, but the reason for the temple is due to the ancient sculptures built in the outer walls of the temple, which give a wonderful glimpse of the work. But why are such chakras engraved, because the temple where the spirit of spirituality and liberation was given Became Aron images move toward sexuality and enjoyment? That is, both things lead to two opposite directions.
Fatehpur Sikri is a city in Agra district of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 40 km west of Agra. The city was founded by Emperor Akbar in 1571 as the capital of the Mughal Empire. It was the capital of Akbar from 1571 to 1585. Fatehpur Sikri has been included in the list of World Heritage of India in the year 1986.
The artistic caves of Elephanta, about 12 kilometers from the Gateway of India in Mumbai, are realistically named Gharapuri Caves. The name Elephanta was given to them by the Portuguese because of the stone elephant built here during their rule. There are a total of seven caves at this place, of which the main cave has 26 pillars, in which many forms of Lord Shiva are engraved. These sculptures made by cutting the hills are inspired by South Indian sculpture. The historical name of the caves derives from the original name Agharpuri.
Nanda Devi And Valley Of Flowers National Parks
Nanda Devi included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site is also the highest mountain peak of Uttarakhand and it is also known as the highest mountain peak of India. Because the borders of the Kanchenjunga mountain peak join with Nepal. This place has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in the years 1988 and 2005.
Darjeeling Toy Train
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway runs on a two feet wide track and has coal engines. This railway has got the status of World Heritage Site from UNESCO. In the photo, this train is departing from Ghoom near where there is a vegetable market. This train running from Coil runs in the afternoon by a mountainous route. In the morning this train is run with the help of a diesel engine. Diesel trains run between Darjeeling to Kharshyang twice a day. The interior decoration of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is excellent. In order to provide better facilities to the tourists, NFR (Northeast Border Railway) has also installed a Wisdom coach and AC coach on this train. This train was started in 1881 in Darjeeling. Although the train runs on its scheduled time, it is also run for the purpose of moving around.
The Red Fort of Delhi is a historic fort of the city of Delhi in India. The Red Fort is a very special place for tourists in India. Tourists coming from other countries also like to see this fort of India. Talking about this fort, let us tell you that till 1856, this fort was ruled by the emperors of the Mughal dynasty for almost 200 years. In 2007, the Red Fort of Delhi was ranked among the World Heritage Sites.
Jantar Mantar, Jaipur
Located near Jaipur’s City Palace and Hawa Mahal, Jantar Mantar is one of the important tourist centers of the city. One of the 5 observatories Jantar Mantar of Jaipur is one of the 5 major observatories. It was built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh, who was also the founder of Jaipur and an astronomer. In the early 18th century, he built 5 Jantar Mantars across India, in Delhi, Mathura, Jaipur, Varanasi, and Ujjain. The purpose of Jantar Mantar, Jantar Mantar was built to study time and space. This composition of Jaipur is a complex of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments, which is still in operation and is still used for calculating and teaching. It is used to observe and study orbits around the Sun. Some of the creations here are made of stone, marble, and copper.
Bodhgaya is located about 100 km southeast of Patna, the capital of Bihar. Bodhgaya is located on the west side of the Phalgu River, a tributary of the Ganges. Bodhgaya is considered by Buddhists to be one of the holiest cities in the world, as Lord Buddha attained enlightenment here. The Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya was granted World Heritage status by UNESCO in the year 2002.
The Mahabodhi Temple, built in the Buddhist Gaya city in the state of Bihar, is considered to be the most important center and sacred place of Buddhism. It was here that Gautama Buddha attained only enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. This temple is a beautiful example of the architecture and traditions of Buddhism. People of various religions and communities come here in search of spiritual peace. Under the direction of British archaeologist Cunningham and Indian archaeologist Dr. Rajendra Lal in the 19th century, it was excavated here in 1883 and after many repairs, the old splendor of the temple was established. The historic and religious Buddhist temple was declared a World Heritage by UNESCO in the World Heritage List in the year 2002 AD. Here, tourists from all over the world, especially those who believe in Buddhism, come here in large numbers. This temple has its special religious significance on the world map.
The glory of Qutub Minar is unique among the historic buildings of Delhi. It is located in the Mehrauli area of Delhi. UNESCO has given it the status of ‘World Heritage Site’. This tower, made of red and pale yellow sandstone, is one of the tallest towers in the world. Its height is 72.5 meters (237.86 feet) and it has a total of 379 steps. Its diameter (diameter) at the base is 14.3 meters and only 2.7 meters at the top. The construction of Qutub Minar was started by the first Muslim king of Delhi, Qutbuddin Aibak in 1199 AD. Aibak built the ground and first floor of Qutub Minar. Later, his son-in-law and successor Iltutmish built three more floors in it. Qutub Minar is said to have been named after Qutubuddin Aibak, but some historians say that it was named after the famous Muslim saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki. It has also been repaired from time to time. The kings who got it repaired are mentioned on its walls. There is also a fourth-century iron pillar near the mosque which attracts a lot of tourists.
Great Himalayan National Park
The Great Himalayan National Park is located in the Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh in India. 1171 sq km The park was granted the status of ‘National Park’ in the year 1999 and later on 23 June 2014, it was conferred the status of ‘World Heritage Site’ by UNESCO. Many species of animals and plants are found here. The Great Himalayan National Park was established in the year 1984. The total area under park administration here is 1171 sq km. (Including National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Echoes), which are included under the ‘Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area’ (GHNPCA). The park has an area of 754.4 sq km, core area, 265.6 sq km area in the ecozone and 61 sq km area of Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary and 90 km square area in Sainj Wildlife Sanctuary. The entire park is spread over an area of 1,171 sq km. The Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area consists of many fauna species such as Asian black bear, Himalayan musk deer, blue sheep, Himalayan Tahar, Snow Leopard, Western Tragopan, etc. The biodiversity found here is strictly protected according to the instructions given under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Around 25 endangered plant species found in the Red List of the International Nature Conservation Association (IUCN) are found in this park. Great Himalayan National Park borders Khirganga National Park (710 km किमी) established in 2010, Pin Valley National Park (675 km किमी) located in the Trans Himalayas, Rupi-Bhabha Wildlife Sanctuary (503 km2) in the Sutlej watershed and The Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary (61 km किमी) meets. The Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area consists of the waters of the Javanal, Sainj and Tirthan Rivers and the Parvati river flowing northwest.
Today, India may lag behind many countries in terms of education, but there was a time when India used to be the center of education. The first university in the world was opened in India itself, which is known as Nalanda University. The ancient Nalanda University was established during the Gupta period in the fifth century, but after the invasion in 1193, it was destroyed. Located in Nalanda, Bihar, the university used to come to study students from many countries of the world between the eighth century to the 12th century. This university had about 10,000 students, who came from different regions of India, apart from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia, and Turkey. About two thousand teachers used to teach here. The entire campus of the ancient Nalanda University was surrounded by a huge wall, with a main entrance to the entrance. From north to south there were rows of monasteries and in front of them, there were many grand stupas and temples. Beautiful statues of Buddha God were installed in the temples, which are now destroyed. The walls of Nalanda University are so wide that a truck can be run over them. In 1199, the Ottoman invader Bakhtiar Khilji destroyed the university completely by burning it. It is said that there were so many books in the library that the fire was on for three whole months. Apart from this he also killed many Dharmacharya and Buddhist monks. Nalanda World University was ranked in the list of UNESCO World Heritage in the year 2016.
Victorian Gothic And Art Deco Ensembles Of Mumbai
A decision by UNESCO’s 42nd World Heritage Committee in Manama, Bahrain has given the people of Mumbai a chance to be proud. The committee has given Mumbai’s The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble the status of World Heritage Site. Let us tell you that The Eros Theaters is situated in Bombay High Court and Art Deco in The Victorian Building. After this decision of UNESCO, Prime Minister Narendra Modi also tweeted and congratulated Mumbaikars. He wrote, ‘Congratulations to the illustrious people of Mumbai on recognition of the Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensemble as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is a great identity for Mumbai’s history and its heritage.